The following hazards cause the most trenching and excavation injuries: No Protective System; Failure to Inspect Trench and Protective Systems; Unsafe Spoil-Pile Placement; Unsafe Access/Egress; Show/Hide All. firing employees for not complying with safety rules. Which of the following is a Type B soil? Protection from hazards associated with water accumulation. Structural ramps used in lieu of steps shall be provided with cleats or other surface treatments on the top surface to prevent slipping. If an excavation is a hazard to workers, it must be effectively covered or guarded. “A protective system is not required to be utilized in an excavation unless it is at least five (5) feet … Testing and controls. Such protection shall consist of scaling to remove loose material; installation of protective barricades at intervals as necessary on the face to stop and contain falling material; or other means that provide equivalent protection. Here are some other requirements to follow: The class is based on the requirements of Subpart P of the Federal OSHA CFR 1926 construction standards for trenching and excavations. Keep surcharge loads at least 2 feet (0.6 meters) from trench edges. Guardrails which comply with 1926.502(b) shall be provided where walkways are six (6) feet or more above lower levels. Sloping involves cutting back the trench wall at an angle that is inclined away from the work area of the excavation. Test for low oxygen, hazardous fumes and toxic gases. OSHA requires that in all excavations employees exposed to potential cave-ins must be protected by sloping or benching the sides of the excava- tion, by supporting the sides of the excavation, or by placing a shield between the side of the excavation and the work area. However, we also address nuances that may appear in state OSHA regulations regarding their excavation standards, where applicable. Surface encumbrances. All surface encumbrances that are located so as to create a hazard to employees shall be removed or supported, as necessary, to safeguard employees. When utility companies or owners cannot respond to a request to locate underground utility installations within 24 hours (unless a longer period is required by state or local law), or cannot establish the exact location of these installations, the employer may proceed, provided the employer does so with caution, and provided detection equipment or other acceptable means to locate utility installations are used. Excavation and trenching are among the most hazardous construction operations. When controls are used that are intended to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels, testing shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere remains safe. This equipment shall be attended when in use. Sandy Clay loam having … Employees exposed to public vehicular traffic shall be provided with, and shall wear, warning vests or other suitable garments marked with or made of reflectorized or high-visibility material. Per OSHA the following standards are required written safety plan or procedures: 18 for general industry and 10 written construction safety plan requirements for the construction industry. This website is not the official or final authority to determine OSHA compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Inspectors are the enforcement arm of the Ministry of Labour; their role includes the following: inspection of workplaces; issuing of orders where there is a contravention of OHSA or its regulations; investigation of accidents and work refusals ; resolution of disputes; recommendation of prosecution. The estimated location of utility installations, such as sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, water lines, or any other underground installations that reasonably may be expected to be encountered during excavation work, shall be determined prior to opening an excavation. Exposure to falling loads. 1926.652(a)(1)(ii) 6 FEET Guardrails are required … OSHA requires you to provide safe access and egress to all excavations, including ladders, steps, ramps, or other safe means of exit for employees working in trench excavations 4 feet (1.22 meters) or deeper. When creating a hazard to employees, these must be removed or supported as necessary to safeguard employees working in the area : Surface encumbrances Before excavation work can begin, it is necessary to determiine the location of these … Source: OSHA – The Federal OSHA excavation standard – CFR 1926 Subpart P, Excavations • Course length: 30-40 minutes • Refer to your local state laws for more information. One of our readers recently asked about rescue requirements in excavations. Temporary protective structure . 4 FEET Excavations greater than 4 feet, the atmosphere must be tested if oxygen deficiency or hazardous atmosphere does, or is reasonable expected, to exist. Structural ramps that are used solely by employees as a means of access or egress from excavations shall be designed by a competent person. Ladders must be provided as a means of exit when employees are required to be in trenches 4 or more feet deep (29 CFR 1926.652(h)). OSHA requires a safe means of access or egress – such as ladders, steps and ramps – to be located within 25 feet of all workers for excavations 4 feet or deeper. Employees shall be protected from excavated or other materials or equipment that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations. 1926.651(g)(1)(i) 5 FEET For excavations less than 5 feet in depth do not require protective system if competent person examines and determines there is no potential for a cave-in. OSHA requires inspection of the excavation site and adjoining areas for possible cave-ins, failures of protective equipment and systems, hazardous atmospheres, and other hazardous conditions. These devices must be located within 25 feet (7.6 meters) of all workers. Operators may remain in the cabs of vehicles being loaded or unloaded when the vehicles are equipped, in accordance with §1926.601(b)(6), to provide adequate protection for the operator during loading and unloading operations. Protection of employees from loose rock or soil. Trench collapses, or cave-ins, pose the greatest risk to workers' lives. While the excavation is open, underground installations shall be protected, supported or removed as necessary to safeguard employees. A stairway, ladder, ramp or other safe means of egress shall be located in trench excavations that are 4 feet (1.22 m) or more in depth so as to require no more than 25 feet (7.62 m) of lateral travel for employees. No Protective System. [54 FR 45959, Oct. 31, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 40730, Aug. 9, 1994], Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Severe Storm and Flood Recovery Assistance. 1926.651 - Specific Excavation Requirements. Before starting work, the Excavation standards require employers to do the following: ■Determine the approximate location(s) of utility installations — including sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, and water lines. If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such as streams), diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to prevent surface water from entering the excavation and to provide adequate drainage of the area adjacent to the excavation. This is one in a series of informational fact sheets highlighting OSHA programs, policies or standards. Where the stability of adjoining buildings, walls, or other structures is endangered by excavation operations, support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided to ensure the stability of such structures for the protection of employees. Another legal requirement is to notify utility owners in the vicinity of an excavation prior to beginning the activity. Guardrails which comply with §1926.502(b) shall be provided where walkways are 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels. These standards help reduce or prevent risks of excavation-related and cave-in incidents. OSHA requires that workers in trenches and excavations be protected, and that safety and health programs address the variety of hazards they face. OSHA defines an excavation as any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in the earth�s surface formed by earth removal. The precautions necessary to protect employees adequately vary with each situation, but could include special support or shield systems to protect from cave-ins, water removal to control the level of accumulating water, or use of a safety harness and lifeline. This could include spoils that could fall into the trench and bury the workers. This process must be carried out prior to the selection of the manufacturer shoring or open-cut sloping for the given project. Structural members used for ramps and runways shall be of uniform thickness. The employer must comply with the trenching and excavation requirements of 29 CFR 1926.651 and 1926.652 or comparable OSHA-approved state plan requirements. We did some searching and found an interesting Letter of Interpretation (LOI) from OSHA that explains when rescue provisions are required during trenching operations. Means of egress must be positioned within _____ feet of employees. Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and protective systems shall be made by a competent person for evidence of a situation that could result in possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. Inspect trenches at the start of each shift. Excavation below the level of the base or footing of any foundation or retaining wall that could be reasonably expected to pose a hazard to employees shall not be permitted except when: A support system, such as underpinning, is provided to ensure the safety of employees and the stability of the structure; or, A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the structure is sufficently removed from the excavation so as to be unaffected by the excavation activity; or. Cleats or other appropriate means used to connect runway structural members shall be attached to the bottom of the runway or shall be attached in a manner to prevent tripping. These devices must be located within 25 feet (7.6 meters) of all … When excavation operations approach the estimated location of underground installations, the exact location of the installations shall be determined by safe and acceptable means. The OSHA excavation standards need a competent person to evaluate and classify rocks and soil deposits on the surface, i.e. In situations where the potential for a hazardous atmosphere exist inside an excavation, such as those listed above, Federal OSHA’s excavation standard 1926.651 (g) requires that the atmosphere be tested before employees enter excavations greater than four (4) feet in depth. Where the competent person finds evidence of a situation that could result in a possible cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions, exposed employees shall be removed from the hazardous area until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety. Sidewalks, pavements, and appurtenant structure shall not be undermined unless a support system or another method of protection is provided to protect employees from the possible collapse of such structures. Employees shall not work in excavations in which there is accumulated water, or in excavations in which water is accumulating, unless adequate precautions have been taken to protect employees against the hazards posed by water accumulation. Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes, or other similar deep and confined footing excavations, shall wear a harness with a life-line securely attached to it. These precautions include providing proper respiratory protection or ventilation in accordance with subparts D and E of this part respectively. OSHA standards on trenching and excavation require your employer to designate a competent person to inspect the trenching operations. For excavations more than 4 feet deep, there needs to be a way to enter and exit the work area at least every 25 feet via a ladder, ramp, or other sturdy device. A walkway across an excavation must be at least 50 cm (20 in) wide, and if crossing an excavation over 1.2 m (4 ft) deep, be equipped with guardrails, meeting the requirements of Part 4 (General Conditions), on both sides. OSHA Excavation Standards. If possible, the grade should be away from the excavation. OSHA Training Requirements - Excavations. These devices must be located in the excavation within 25 feet (7.62 meters) of all workers. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Know where underground utilities are located. The evaluation of soil conditions and structure is crucial to safe operation in and around excavations, therefore an excavation requirement was included in the construction standard, which was among the first promulgated by OSHA in 1971.2In that standard, soils were classified into three types called running, unstable, and hard compact. OSHA requires safe access and egress to all excavations, including ladders, steps, ramps, or other safe means of exit for employees working in trench excavations 4 feet (1.22 meters) or deeper. four, twenty five. Excavations that have a depth of _____ feet or more must have a way to enter the excavation. If water is controlled or prevented from accumulating by the use of water removal equipment, the water removal equipment and operations shall be monitored by a competent person to ensure proper operation. Inspections shall also be made after every rainstorm or other hazard increasing occurrence. For a comprehensive list of compliance requirements of OSHA standards or regulations, refer to Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Keep heavy equipment away from trench edges. OSHA has its own requirements for this, and the standard also indicates that state and/or local government may have additional requirements that must be adhered to. 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